Table III. ANOVA statistics from linear mixed-effects models for traits measured in the field experiment

For each trait, the growth stage of measurement was treated as a fixed effect, and cultivar identity was treated as a random effect to partition phenotypic variance to within and between cultivars. Trait abbreviations are as in Table II. Min and Max are the minimum and maximum trait values. Model degrees of freedom are type III Satterthwaite approximates. Variance components were estimated by partitioning variance within and between cultivars with REML. Significance levels are as follows: n.s., P > 0.05, and ***, P < 0.001 after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Effects were not estimated for gs-co2, since it is a direct transformation of gs.

TraitRangeGrowth Stage, Fixed EffectVariance ComponentVariance Attributed to Cultivar
MinMaxF2,78-86PCultivarResidual
%
α0.8150.95559.5***8.007 × 10−53.445 × 10−418.86
SPAD2554.8129.1***4.29111.84826.59
AN7.833.43.0n.s.4.8418.0821.12
gs0.09880.58535.2***8.88 × 10−47.29 × 10−310.86
gs-co20.06180.365
gm0.392.428.7***0.01780.135711.60
gm/gs-co20.4451.38933.4***0.002.186 × 10−20.00
Ci-Cc62.0229.814.0***76.91553.9112.19
AN/gs41.5114.067.1***0.001160.00
δ13C−31.31−26.2107.8***0.18420.374632.96
Jcal95.0300.41.1n.s.346.72164.313.81
Narea0.3803.16355.5***9.855 × 10−30.17025.47
Nmass1.9375.89119.9***0.000.44630.00
LT0.1450.302539.8***1.602 × 10−56.741 × 10−42.32
LD0.1050.281184.2***1.355 × 10−45.387 × 10−420.10
LMA19.680.8147.4***5.00167.216.93
LDMC0.1720.374244.6***1.308 × 10−45.5574 × 10−419.01