Table 1. Nineteen Bromeliaceae species investigated and the associated δ13C values from Crayn et al. (2015), CAM versus C3 classification based on a −20‰ threshold (Winter et al., 2015), and identifiers that correspond with images in Figure 3

Definitions for plant habit are adapted from Males and Griffiths (2017).

Speciesδ13CHabitGrowth ConditionsaIdentifier
 Tillandsia recurvata−15.9Atmospheric epiphyteGHa
 Tillandsia caulescens−14.8Atmospheric epiphytebGHb
 Tillandsia usneoides−14.4Atmospheric epiphyteGHc
 Acanthostachys strobiliacea−16.1EpiphyteGHd
 Aechmea fulgens−13.5Tank epiphyteGH (UCD)e
 Hechtia marnier-lapostolleii−11.9TerrestrialArid GHf
 Deuterochonia schreiteri−11.4TerrestrialOutdoorg
 Quesnelia marmorata−14.0TerrestrialGHh
 Bilbergia elegans−16.6Tank epiphyteGH (UCD)i
 Aechmea penduliflora−15.2Tank epiphyteGHj
 Hechtia caerulea.−15.8TerrestrialArid GHk
 Aechmea fendleri−11.1Tank epiphyteGH (UCD)l
 Ochagavia carnea−21.5TerrestrialOutdoorm
 Brocchinia hechtioides−23.7Tank lithophyteGHn
 Greigia sphacelata−31.3TerrestrialOutdooro
 Pitcairnia tabuliformis−30.2TerrestrialGHp
 Guzmania zahnii−24.0Tank epiphyteGHq
 Nidularium innocenti−33.3Tank epiphyteGH (UCD)r
 Guzmania lingulata−28.0Tank epiphyteGH (UCD)s
  • a GH stands for greenhouse, and all plants were grown at the University of California Botanical Garden (UCBG) except when specified (UCD, University of California Davis Botanical Conservatory). Growth conditions are described in “Materials and Methods.”

  • b T. caulescens is probably a transition between tank and atmospheric epiphytes, as it is grown usually upward and has some small tanks.