Table 1. Gymnosperms with known thermogenic ability in their cones

–, no data; CR, critically endangered; EN, endangered; VU, vulnerable; NT, near threatened; LC, least concern.

FamilyGenusBotanical NameConservation StatusaTcone − Tair (°C)bReference
Male ConeFemale Cone
ZamiaceaeBoweniaB. spectabilisLC1.8Tang (1987)
CeratozamiaC. hildaeEN1.70.1Tang (1987)
C. matudaeEN5.4Tang (1987)
C. microstrobilaVU2.1Tang (1987)
C. miquelianaCR4.9Tang (1987), Skubatz et al. (1993)
C. robustaEN3.21.7Tang (1987)
C. spp7.01.0Tang (1987)
DioonD. eduleNT7.53.0Tang (1987)
D. mejiaeLC8.3Tang (1987)
D. merolaeVU6.3Tang (1987)
D. spinulosumEN7.14.8Tang (1987)
EncephalartosE. altensteiniiVU10.7Tang (1987)
E. barteriVU4.7Tang (1987)
E. bubalinusNT12.3Tang (1987)
E. feroxNT6.62.8Tang (1987)
E. gratusVU11.26.7Tang (1987)
E. hildebrandtiiNT6.35.8Tang (1987)
E. longifoliusNT7.0Tang (1987)
E. manikensisVU4.8Tang (1987)
E. villosusLC9.32.0Tang (1987), Suinyuy et al. (2013)
LepidozamiaL. peroffskyanaLC7.4Tang (1987)
MacrozamiaM. fawcettiiNT0.5Tang (1987)
M. lucidaLC12.05.4Tang (1987), Terry et al. (2004), Roemer et al. (2012), Roemer et al. (2005), Terry et al. (2007)
M. macleayiLC12.0Terry et al. (2004), Roemer et al. (2012), Roemer et al. (2005)
M. machiniiVU12.04.6Terry et al. (2004), Roemer et al. (2005), Seymour et al. (2004)
M. miquelliiLC1.9Tang (1987)
M. mooreiNT3.71.0Tang (1987)
M. pauli-guilielmiEN1.8Tang (1987)
MicrocycasM. calocomaCR2.6Tang (1987)
ZamiaZ. bolivianaNT7.4Tang (1987)
Z. fischeriEN1.2Tang (1987)
Z. furfuraceaEN2.50.8Tang (1987), Skubatz et al. (1993)
Z. loddigesiiNT0.70.2Tang (1987)
Z. manicataNT0.8Tang (1987)
Z. pumilaNT1.2Tang (1987)
Z. skinneriEN7.4Tang (1987)
CycadaceaeCycasC. cairnsianaVU2.4Tang (1987)
C. mediaLC1.9Tang (1987)
C. micronesicaEN5.1Roemer et al. (2013)
C. pectinataVU0.8Tang (1987)
C. revolutaLC11.58.3Tang (1987), Seymour (2010), this study
C. rumphiiNT1.5Tang (1987), Skubatz et al. (1993)
C. spp5.1Tang (1987)
  • a Conservation status was obtained from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species Version 2016.1.

  • b Mean of the greatest difference between the internal temperature of the cones (Tcone) and ambient air temperature (Tair). The value was recorded or calculated in previous reports, except for C. revoluta, where the value was recorded in this study. If there were more than two references for the same species, the highest value was incorporated in this list.