Table I. Important food and C4 biofuel crop species used in εc analyses

Species further divided into genetic components are indicated. Biomass energy content for vegetative (V) and combined vegetative and reproductive (V+R) stages used for converting εc values to energy units are indicated for each crop.

SpeciesCommon NameTypeFood or Energy CropGroups by Cultivar, Species, or HybridEnergy ContentEnergy Content Data Source
VV+R
MJ kg−1
Z. mays MaizeC4 Both a 17.017.0 Penning de Vries et al. (1989)
S. bicolor SorghumC4 Both a Energy/biomass/forage grain17.617.3 Amthor et al. (1994)
S. tuberosum PotatoC3 Food17.015.8 Penning de Vries et al. (1989)
O. sativa RiceC3 FoodNew hybrids15.115.9 Penning de Vries et al. (1989)
indica
japonica
Basmati
T. aestivum WheatC3 FoodSpring17.016.6 Penning de Vries et al. (1989)
Winter
H. vulgare BarleyC3 Food16.115.6 McKendry (2002; V); Sinha et al. (1982; V+R)
A. hypogaea PeanutC3 Food17.923.3 Penning de Vries et al. (1989)
G. max SoybeanC3 Food18.119.8 Amthor et al. (1994)
Cicer arietinum ChickpeaC3 Food17.918.6 Penning de Vries et al. (1989)
Cajanus cajan PigeonpeaC3 Food17.918.4 Penning de Vries et al. (1989)
P. virgatum SwitchgrassC4 Energy17.417.4 McKendry (2002)
Saccharum spp.SugarcaneC4 Energy17.417.4 Botha (2009)
Miscanthus spp.MiscanthusC4 Energy M. giganteus 18.518.5 McKendry (2002)
M. sinensis
  • a Maize studies completely overlapped from food to energy analyses. Sorghum food and energy cultivars were separated and analyzed in the respective analyses.