Table I. Genes that are involved in RH development in monocots
GeneEncoded ProteinProtein FunctionSpeciesMutantReferences
Stage of RH development: bulge formation
 RTH3 COBRA-like proteinCell expansion, cell wall components, biosynthesisMaize+ Hochholdinger et al. (2008)
 HvPRX45 Peroxidase ROS productionBarley Kwasniewski et al. (2013a)
Stage of RH development: tip growth
 RTH5 NAPDH oxidaseEstablishment of a high level of ROS in RH tipsMaize+ Nestler et al. (2014)
 HvEXPB1 ExpansinCell wall looseningBarley Kwasniewski and Szarejko (2006); Won et al. (2010)
 OsEXPB5 ExpansinCell wall looseningRice Won et al. (2010)
 OsEXPA17 ExpansinCell wall looseningRice+ ZhiMing et al. (2011)
 OsRTH1 ApyraseHydrolyzation of extracellular ATPRice+ Yuo et al. (2009)
 OsSNDP Sec14-nodulin domain-containing proteinVesicle transport and organization of the cytoskeletonRice+ Huang et al. (2013c)
 RTH1 Exocyst subunit SEC3Polar exocytosisMaize+ Wen et al. (2005)
 OsFH1 Formin-like proteinPolymerization of the actin cytoskeletonRice+ Huang et al. (2013b)
 OsCLSD1 Cellulose synthase-like D1 proteinSynthesis of celluloseRice+ Kim et al. (2007); Yuo et al. (2011)
 OsXXT1 Xyloglucan 6-xylosytransferaseFormation of the cellulose-xyloglucan networkRice+ Wang et al. (2014)
 OsRHL1 bHLH transcription factorFunction unknownRice+ Ding et al. (2009)