Table I. Comparison of the strength of carbonyls to induce PCD in BY-2 tobacco cells as determined by DNA fragmentation

Cells were incubated with a carbonyl at the indicated concentrations for 20 h. Fragmentation of the chromosomal DNA was judged based on the generation of 180 bp and its multiples by agarose gel electrophoresis. + and –, Detectable and undetectable levels of the DNA fragments, respectively. nt, Not tested.

CarbonylConcentration
0.1 mm0.2 mm0.5 mm3 mm10 mm50 mm
Acrolein+++ntnt
HNE++ntntnt
(Z)-3-Hexenal++nt
n-Hexanal++nt
n-Heptanal++nt
Propionaldehyde+