Table I.

Flowering-time and floral-identity genes

MutantPhenotypeReference
Autonomous pathway
fca Late flowering; responds to vernalization Macknight et al. (1997)
ld Late flowering; responds to vernalization Lee et al. (1994)
fpa, fve, fy Late flowering; responds to vernalizationMartínez-Zapater et al. (1994)
LD pathway
co Late flowering; no response to vernalizationPuterill et al. (1995)
fha Late flowering; no response to vernalization Lin et al. (1996)
fd, fe, ft, fwa, gi Late flowering; no response to vernalization.Martínez-Zapater et al. (1994)
lhy Late flowering; disruption of circadian rhythm Coupland (1997)
GA pathway
ga1 Late flowering Wilson et al. (1992); Blázquez et al. (1997)
Floral repressor
elf3 Early flowering; disruption of circadian rhythm Hicks et al. (1996)
emf1, emf2 Early flowering Castle and Sung (1995)
tfl Early flowering; determinate inflorescenceBradley et al. (1997)
Floral meristem identity
lfy Partial transformation of flowers into inflorescence Weigel et al. (1992)
ap1 Partial transformation of flowers into inflorescence Irish and Sussex (1990)
ap2 Partial transformation of flowers into inflorescence Jofuku et al. (1994)
ap1 cal Partial transformation of flowers into inflorescence Bowman et al. (1993)
ag Floral indeterminate growth; floral reversion (SD) Mizukami and Ma (1997)