Table I.

Some of the known eukaryotic two-component systems and their output activities

OrganismProbable SignalPathwayOutput SignalingReferences
Hybrid HPK (His→Asp)RR (→Asp)
S. cerevisiae OsmolaritySLN1  YPD1 (→His)SSK1MAPK cascade Maeda et al. (1994); Posas et al. (1996)
S. pombe Various stresses?MCS4MAPK cascade Shieh et al. (1997)
A. thaliana EthyleneETR1 ?MAPK cascade (?) Chang et al. (1993); Hua et al. (1995); Hua et al. (1997)
ERS-a ?MAPK cascade (?)
ETR2 ?MAPK cascade (?)
EIN4  ?MAPK cascade (?)
D. discoideum OsmolarityDOKA?Cytoskeletal alteration (?) Schuster et al. (1996)
Secreted peptideDHKAREGAcAMP-dependent protein kinase activity Wang et al. (1996); Shaulsky et al. (1996); Shaulsky et al. (1998)
  • F0-a A typical (not a hybrid) HPK.