Table II.

Levels, response ratios, and PCA loadings of metabolites in Fe-, N-, S-, and P-limited and TAP control conditions

Mean and se (n = 5) of metabolite levels in arbitrary units are shown. Response ratios above 2.5 or below 0.4 are in bold. Loadings for principal components 1 and 2 are given in powers of 10−2, i.e. 1.23 designates 0.0123. LOD indicates response below limit of detection. NA indicates not applicable.

MetaboliteTAP−Fe−N−S−P−Fe/TAP−N/TAP−S/TAP−P/TAPLoading PC1Loading PC2
1,3-Dihydroxyacetone0.48 ± 0.040.05 ± 0.0030.097 ± 0.0050.062 ± 0.0060.17 ± 0.010.100.200.130.36−8.937.67
2-Aminoadipate0.026 ± 0.0010.024 ± 0.0020.248 ± 0.0040.202 ± 0.0050.045 ± 0.0030.909.427.661.699.00−2.00
2-Ketoglutaric acid0.49 ± 0.021.11 ± 0.050.223 ± 0.0050.136 ± 0.0041 ± 0.42.280.460.282.03−6.92−4.71
2-Ketovaline0.44 ± 0.030.65 ± 0.040.034 ± 0.0060.008 ± 0.0080.042 ± 0.0061.470.080.020.10−6.399.32
2-Phosphoglycolic acid0.014 ± 0.0020.009 ± 0.0030.011 ± 0.0020.0111 ± 0.00080.016 ± 0.0020.610.790.791.14−7.13−3.18
3-Hydroxybutyric acid2.72 ± 0.041.64 ± 0.040.077 ± 0.005LOD2.6 ± 0.10.600.03NA0.96−12.69−0.70
3-Hydroxypyridine10.5 ± 0.811 ± 17.9 ± 0.411.9 ± 0.810.3 ± 0.91.080.761.140.98−8.050.31
3-Isopropylmalic acid5.3 ± 0.12.39 ± 0.04LODLOD2.53 ± 0.10.45NANA0.47−11.726.74
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid0.103 ± 0.010.086 ± 0.010.053 ± 0.0030.073 ± 0.0080.104 ± 0.0090.840.510.701.01−11.230.30
4-Hyp0.24 ± 0.010.202 ± 0.0070.201 ± 0.00512.6 ± 0.40.27 ± 0.030.840.8452.271.119.101.79
5-Oxoproline0.83 ± 0.050.64 ± 0.020.19 ± 0.030.315 ± 0.0060.71 ± 0.020.770.230.380.85−12.291.13
6-Phosphogluconic acid0.8 ± 0.20.4 ± 0.10.047 ± 0.0070.23 ± 0.050.15 ± 0.020.500.060.290.19−7.4111.02
Adenine4.32 ± 0.071.8 ± 0.20.39 ± 0.010.57 ± 0.042.51 ± 0.070.430.090.130.58−11.885.22
Ala9.9 ± 0.42.6 ± 0.090.61 ± 0.032.57 ± 0.066 ± 0.20.260.060.260.61−11.134.04
Asn4 ± 0.11.29 ± 0.060.73 ± 0.032.27 ± 0.13.1 ± 0.10.320.180.570.78−10.592.27
Asp26.9 ± 0.411.4 ± 0.216.8 ± 0.350 ± 240 ± 20.420.631.851.49−2.99−8.65
Benzoic acid0.99 ± 0.050.91 ± 0.030.72 ± 0.030.53 ± 0.031.05 ± 0.060.920.730.541.07−11.12−2.58
Citramalic acid1.56 ± 0.050.74 ± 0.020.115 ± 0.0030.077 ± 0.0031.09 ± 0.070.470.070.050.70−12.423.29
Citric acid21.6 ± 0.653 ± 112.19 ± 0.0711.4 ± 0.188 ± 22.450.560.534.06−8.10−12.25
Citrulline1.4 ± 0.31.4 ± 0.30.33 ± 0.032.4 ± 0.41.1 ± 0.20.970.231.740.76−3.476.51
Cys0.243 ± 0.0060.13 ± 0.030.33 ± 0.040.06 ± 0.016.1 ± 0.40.541.350.2525.13−5.84−14.85
CystineLODLODLODLOD43 ± 2NANANANA−5.73−14.96
d-Fru-1,6-bisphosphate0.064 ± 0.0070.08 ± 0.030.043 ± 0.0030.18 ± 0.050.23 ± 0.021.210.672.903.61−3.18−12.61
d-Fru-6-phosphate0.86 ± 0.070.92 ± 0.040.55 ± 0.021.2 ± 0.070.85 ± 0.051.070.641.400.99−8.132.13
d-Glc-6-phosphate3.2 ± 0.33.9 ± 0.22.87 ± 0.0310.2 ± 0.23 ± 0.21.210.893.170.958.303.72
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate0.22 ± 0.010.13 ± 0.0060.056 ± 0.0030.13 ± 0.010.108 ± 0.0030.580.250.590.48−9.719.95
d-Rib-5-phosphate0.0145 ± 0.0010.016 ± 0.0020.014 ± 0.0020.025 ± 0.0030.025 ± 0.0021.130.991.721.70−4.23−10.32
Fru0.58 ± 0.070.13 ± 0.02LOD0.15 ± 0.020.46 ± 0.090.22NA0.270.79−10.311.16
Fumaric acid13.2 ± 0.26.1 ± 0.12.07 ± 0.050.58 ± 0.077.6 ± 0.20.460.160.040.57−12.115.26
Galactinol0.94 ± 0.050.45 ± 0.030.87 ± 0.032.1 ± 0.20.85 ± 0.050.470.922.220.905.890.86
Galactonic acid0.144 ± 0.0060.186 ± 0.0070.0155 ± 0.00080.024 ± 0.0030.165 ± 0.0081.290.110.171.15−11.27−1.01
Glc-1-phosphate7.7 ± 0.48.3 ± 0.34.7 ± 0.26.9 ± 0.55.8 ± 0.31.070.610.890.75−9.257.18
Glu10.2 ± 0.28.5 ± 0.21.8 ± 0.063.3 ± 0.18.4 ± 0.20.830.180.320.83−12.302.05
Gln40 ± 228 ± 14.1 ± 0.121.8 ± 0.947 ± 20.700.100.551.18−11.75−2.61
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate0.101 ± 0.0020.123 ± 0.0040.1 ± 0.010.05 ± 0.0030.21 ± 0.011.220.980.502.05−8.29−11.32
Glycerate-3-phosphate2.07 ± 0.095.7 ± 0.33.3 ± 0.17.7 ± 0.24.8 ± 0.12.731.613.742.313.58−9.31
Glyceric acid1.51 ± 0.030.84 ± 0.030.88 ± 0.042.27 ± 0.066.4 ± 0.20.550.581.514.24−6.02−14.02
Glycerol26 ± 320 ± 220 ± 2160 ± 3018 ± 20.780.776.230.708.093.13
Gly5.1 ± 0.32.33 ± 0.11.79 ± 0.082.97 ± 0.14.28 ± 0.080.460.350.580.84−11.421.04
Glycolic acid0.9 ± 0.030.64 ± 0.010.4 ± 0.020.83 ± 0.061.3 ± 0.080.710.440.921.44−10.08−8.37
His8 ± 11.7 ± 0.64 ± 11.4 ± 0.53.2 ± 0.50.210.550.170.40−5.465.29
Hydroxylamine8 ± 28.9 ± 0.910.4 ± 0.710 ± 18.2 ± 0.71.181.391.311.10−0.35−1.61
Iminodiacetic acid0.6 ± 0.010.168 ± 0.0070.329 ± 0.0050.427 ± 0.0081.71 ± 0.090.280.550.712.86−7.27−12.56
Inositol-β-galactoside24.1 ± 0.88.6 ± 0.12.44 ± 0.063.62 ± 0.088.8 ± 0.40.360.100.150.37−10.479.23
Ile19.1 ± 0.49.7 ± 0.248 ± 282 ± 317.1 ± 0.80.512.504.280.9010.830.25
Leu1.53 ± 0.020.54 ± 0.010.91 ± 0.031.65 ± 0.060.63 ± 0.020.350.591.080.41−1.5712.20
Lys10.6 ± 0.28.8 ± 0.24.45 ± 0.085.4 ± 0.110.7 ± 0.60.830.420.511.00−12.69−1.48
Malic acid8.32 ± 0.098.9 ± 0.12.14 ± 0.050.62 ± 0.028.9 ± 0.21.070.260.071.07−12.05−1.58
Maltose0.51 ± 0.050.26 ± 0.020.32 ± 0.030.37 ± 0.011.4 ± 0.080.510.620.722.73−7.53−12.49
Met0.67 ± 0.020.61 ± 0.060.123 ± 0.007LOD1.4 ± 0.20.910.18NA2.09−10.17−8.73
myo-Inositol19.6 ± 0.66.2 ± 0.22.49 ± 0.062.53 ± 0.0423.4 ± 0.40.320.130.131.19−11.59−3.99
Myristic acid0.47 ± 0.080.51 ± 0.060.39 ± 0.030.55 ± 0.050.5 ± 0.051.100.841.181.07−7.311.31
N-Acetyl-galactosamine0.041 ± 0.0030.035 ± 0.0030.024 ± 0.0020.024 ± 0.0040.077 ± 0.0060.860.590.601.89−9.42−10.81
N-Acetyl-l-Glu3.4 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.20.34 ± 0.010.4 ± 0.10.6 ± 0.050.400.100.130.18−8.8811.41
N-Acetyl-Orn0.48 ± 0.050.43 ± 0.03LOD0.24 ± 0.020.125 ± 0.0090.90NA0.500.26−7.8211.62
Nicotinamide5.1 ± 0.32.4 ± 0.40.85 ± 0.081 ± 0.22.3 ± 0.30.480.170.200.46−10.657.29
Orn11.5 ± 0.510.2 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.11.8 ± 0.19 ± 0.50.880.060.150.78−12.032.51
Oxalic acid6.1 ± 0.65.9 ± 0.75.7 ± 0.37.4 ± 16.7 ± 0.50.970.941.211.09−5.43−4.60
Phe13.4 ± 0.25 ± 0.15.9 ± 0.120.1 ± 0.75.2 ± 0.20.370.441.500.390.7712.09
Phosphoenolpyruvic acid1.48 ± 0.040.95 ± 0.050.279 ± 0.0050.42 ± 0.010.39 ± 0.020.650.190.290.26−9.1112.17
Prephenic acid0.034 ± 0.0030.078 ± 0.0020.032 ± 0.001LOD0.04 ± 0.012.270.94NA1.16−6.16−0.56
Pro86 ± 461 ± 429.5 ± 0.6180 ± 1035 ± 30.710.342.060.413.3710.29
Putrescine18.7 ± 0.513.2 ± 0.41.78 ± 0.050.129 ± 0.0085.5 ± 0.30.710.090.010.29−10.279.86
Pyruvic acid4.1 ± 0.32.9 ± 0.31.05 ± 0.060.53 ± 0.021.28 ± 0.080.700.250.130.31−9.4910.47
Rib0.46 ± 0.030.32 ± 0.031.1 ± 0.11.8 ± 0.092.2 ± 0.20.682.363.894.85−0.43−15.10
Sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphateLODLODLOD0.033 ± 0.0060.015 ± 0.003NANANANA3.82−8.53
Ser2 ± 0.030.71 ± 0.020.277 ± 0.0073.28 ± 0.071.71 ± 0.060.350.141.640.85−3.441.82
Shikimic acid94.9 ± 137.9 ± 0.6LODLODLOD0.40NANANA−8.2913.35
sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate2.2 ± 0.20.8 ± 0.10.79 ± 0.077 ± 0.51.1 ± 0.20.370.363.250.495.885.48
Succinic acid2.97 ± 0.097.4 ± 0.12.41 ± 0.062.72 ± 0.062.84 ± 0.052.480.810.920.96−4.262.44
Threonic acid1.42 ± 0.043.5 ± 0.10.56 ± 0.013.3 ± 0.112.8 ± 0.52.470.392.339.04−6.10−14.52
Thr7.3 ± 0.35.5 ± 0.317.9 ± 0.721.7 ± 0.511.5 ± 0.90.752.462.991.587.80−6.09
Trehalose0.15 ± 0.010.093 ± 0.0030.036 ± 0.0020.051 ± 0.0030.043 ± 0.0030.630.240.350.29−8.8312.32
Trp0.6 ± 0.10.33 ± 0.072.9 ± 0.71.2 ± 0.30.43 ± 0.070.554.952.110.735.62−1.10
Tyr8.1 ± 0.24.16 ± 0.059 ± 0.136.5 ± 0.55.8 ± 0.20.511.114.510.719.783.18
Uracil6.86 ± 0.091.3 ± 0.10.68 ± 0.071.4 ± 0.41.44 ± 0.060.190.100.200.21−8.5611.09
Val9.3 ± 0.13.9 ± 0.13.1 ± 0.111.6 ± 0.44.6 ± 0.30.420.331.250.50−3.5410.73