Table I. Identified metabolites and their content as analyzed by 1H NMR spectrum

1H chemical shift is reported with respect to TSP signal (δ = 0.00 ppm) in CD3OD and a binary mixture of CD3OD-D2O (8:2), respectively. Data were recorded for at least three independent leaves. sd values of metabolite contents for independent measurement are given in parentheses. ND, Not detected.

Metabolites1H (ppm) and MultiplicityContent
ControlTransgenicP
mg g−1 dry wt
Ala1.48 (d)0.272 (0.002)0.479 (0.006)0.001
Asn2.85 (dd), 2.93 (dd)0.199 (0.005)1.256 (0.006)0.001
Citrate2.65 (dd), 2.80 (dd)6.715 (0.239)9.867 (0.719)0.002
Choline3.19 (s)0.143 (0.003)0.368 (0.005)0.001
Glc3.25 (dd), 4.64 (d), 5.22 (d)1.502 (0.160)2.971 (0.212)0.001
Gln2.14 (m), 2.46 (m), 3.65 (t)1.328 (0.312)0.372 (0.003)0.006
Lactate1.33 (d), 4.14 (q)0.196 (0.002)0.044 (0.003)0.001
Malate2.39 (dd), 4.33 (dd)3.330 (0.269)4.023 (0.183)0.013
Phe7.32 (m), 7.37 (m), 7.41 (m)0.731 (0.003)1.041 (0.051)0.001
Pro2.07 (m), 2.35 (m), 4.14 (m)5.167 (0.283)10.874 (1.033)0.001
Rutin3.80 (d), 6.20 (s), 6.87 (d)ND2.8320.001
Suc5.42 (d)7.024 (0.164)4.897 (0.175)0.001
Thr1.32 (d), 4.26 (m)0.689 (0.009)1.611 (0.085)0.001
Val0.99 (d), 1.03 (d), 2.27 (m)0.162 (0.002)0.904 (0.013)0.001