Table I. Indirect physiological alterations induced in cell wall-defective mutants or after transgenic or pharmacological interference with cell wall biosynthesis or structure

↑, induction of; ↓, suppression of; as, antisense suppression; ASR, abiotic stress resistance; AXS, UDP-apiose/UDP-xylose synthase; CalS, callose synthase; CD, cell death, both programmed and necrotic; CE, cellulose; CesA, cellulose synthase catalytic subunit; CH, carbohydrates; DCB, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile; DR, disease resistance and reduced pathogen susceptibility; ET, ethylene; EXT, extensin; GM, glucomannan; GMD, GDP-d-mannose 4,6-dehydratase; HSR, hypersensitive to sugar; JA, jasmonic acid; PE, pectin; PME, pectin methyl esterase; SA, salicylic acid.

Mutant/Transgene/DrugHypothetical Cell Wall EffectSecondary Effect and Physiological ResponseReference
cesa3Primary CEDR; ↑ET, JA signaling; ↑VSP1 and PDF1.2 expression, THE1-dependent ↓growth, ↑ligninEllis et al. (2002); Cano-Delgado et al. (2003); Hématy et al. (2007)
cesa6THE1-dependent ↓growth, ↑lignin, ↑calloseHématy et al. (2007)
kobitoABA insensitivity, Glc-dependent growth, Glc-insensitive germinationBrocard-Gifford et al. (2004)
elp1THE1-dependent ↓growth, ↑ligninZhong et al. (2002); Hématy et al. (2007)
cesa7Secondary CEDR; ASR; ↓PE and XG in primary cell wallChen et al. (2005); Bosca et al. (2006); Hernandez-Blanco et al. (2007)
cesa4DRHernandez-Blanco et al. (2007)
cesa8DR; ASR; ↑ABA-inducible genesChen et al. (2005); Hernandez-Blanco et al. (2007)
pme3PEDR (cyst nematodes)Hewezi et al. (2008)
pmr5DR (independent of JA, SA, ET)Vogel et al. (2004)
pmr6DR (independent of JA, SA, ET)Vogel et al. (2002)
AXSasCD, cell wall thickeningAhn et al. (2006)
pmr4Lesion calloseDR; ↑SA pathwayNishimura et al. (2003)
csla9GM (?)Agrobacterium tumefaciens resistanceZhu et al. (2003)
mur3XGDR, ↑SA; HSRLi et al. (2007); Tedman-Jones et al. (2008)
fla4AGPSalt-oversensitive root growthShi et al. (2003)
agp30Resistant to ABA inhibition of germinationvan Hengel and Roberts (2003)
agp17A. tumefaciens resistanceGaspar et al. (2004)
agp19↓Cell division and elongation, chlorophyllYang et al. (2007)
xeg113EXT arabinosylation↓XGase responseGille et al. (2009)
mur1Fucosylated CHHSRLi et al. (2007)
mur4Arabinosylated CHHSR (suppressed by boric acid and prl1 mutant)Li et al. (2007)
rhm1Rhamnosylated CHlrx1 phenotype in root hairs, ↑cell wall-remodeling genesDiet et al. (2006)
βGlcYAGP aggregationCa2+ influx, wound response-like transcript profile, CDGao and Showalter (1999); Roy et al. (1999); Guan and Nothnagel (2004); Pickard and Fujiki (2005)
IsoxabenCE synthesis inhibition↑PE biosynthetic genes, ↑defense-related genes, ↑JA, SA, ET synthesis, CDManfield et al. (2004); Hamann et al. (2009)
Thaxtomin A↑Ca2+, CD, ↓CE biosynthetic genes, ↑PE biosynthetic and cell wall-remodeling genes, ↑defense-related genes, ↑callose, ↑ligninDuval et al. (2005); Errakhi et al. (2008); Bischoff et al. (2009); Duval and Beaudoin (2009); Meimoun et al. (2009)
DCB↑CalloseMelida et al. (2009)