Table I. Overview of transcription factors with a role in the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway

↑, ↓, or =, Target gene up-regulated, down-regulated, or not affected, respectively.

Transcription FactorPALC4H4CLHCTC3HCCoAOMTCCRF5HCOMTCADMethodaReference
Arabidopsis
    AtMYB4=b==qPCR, TEAJin et al.(2000)
    AtMYB46bbqPCR, TEAZhong et al. (2007); Ko et al. (2009)
    AtMYB58bqPCR, TEA, EMSAZhou et al. (2009)
    AtMYB63bqPCR, TEA, EMSAZhou et al. (2009)
    BREVIPEDICELLUSbbqPCR, EMSAMele et al. (2003)
Tobacco
    NtLIM1qPCR, EMSAcKawaoka et al. (2000)
Maize
    ZmMYB31==qPCRFornalé et al. (2006)
    ZmMYB42=qPCRFornalé et al. (2006)
Poplar
    PttMYB21=====qPCRKarpinska et al. (2004)
    PtrMYB3qPCR, TEAMcCarthy et al. (2010)
    PtrMYB20qPCR, TEAMcCarthy et al. (2010)
Eucalyptus
    EgMYB1bbTEA, EMSALegay et al. (2007)
    EgMYB2==bqPCR, EMSAGoicoechea et al. (2005)
Antirrhinum majus
    AmMYB330RNA blotTamagnone et al. (1998)
    AmMYB308=bY1H, RNA blotTamagnone et al. (1998)
Pinus taeda
    PtMYB4==RNA blot, EMSAdPatzlaff et al. (2003)
    PtMYB1↑↓qPCRBomal et al. (2008)
    PtMYB8=qPCRBomal et al. (2008)
Vitis vinifera
    VvWRKY2bqPCR, TEAGuillaumie et al. (2010)
  • a qPCR refers to quantitative reverse transcription-PCR results from overexpressing lines, what does not necessarily imply direct binding on the respective promoters, except for Myb58, for which the qPCR was done in an estradiol-inducible system in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (Zhou et al., 2009). EMSA, Electrophoretic mobility shift assay; TEA, protoplast transient expression assay; Y1H, yeast one-hybrid assay.

  • b Direct promoter binding proven by TEA, EMSA, or Y1H.

  • c EMSA shows binding to the Pal box.

  • d EMSA shows binding to the AC-promoter element.