Table II. Soluble metabolite abundances in Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures grown under control conditions (21°C, no mannitol), at high temperature (29°C), and under hyperosmotic stress (171 mm mannitol)

Soluble metabolites were extracted with perchloric acid, and abundances were determined using 13C-decoupled 1H NMR spectroscopy. All values are in μmol mg−1 dry weight and are means ± sd from four replicates. Values indicated in boldface are significantly different (Student’s t test, P < 0.05) from the corresponding value for control cells.

MetaboliteTreatment
Control29°CHyperosmotic
Suc0.060 ± 0.0190.098 ± 0.0040.086 ± 0.007
Citrate0.112 ± 0.0190.252 ± 0.0150.050 ± 0.012
Malate0.183 ± 0.0190.211 ± 0.0190.059 ± 0.025
Succinate0.028 ± 0.0290.011 ± 0.0020.013 ± 0.003
Fumarate0.002 ± 0.0010.000 ± 0.0000.000 ± 0.000
Asp0.040 ± 0.0080.080 ± 0.0030.013 ± 0.005
Glu0.135 ± 0.0070.135 ± 0.0080.041 ± 0.005
Gln0.148 ± 0.0270.205 ± 0.0090.039 ± 0.015
γ-Aminobutyrate0.041 ± 0.0060.071 ± 0.0020.031 ± 0.004
Ala0.194 ± 0.0770.334 ± 0.0390.042 ± 0.010